Whitebark Pine

Grows above 8,000 feet. Needles are in bundles of 5. Cones are purple and smaller than those of limber pine.

Subalpine Fir

Grows on wetter north-facing valley sites and at higher elevations. Smooth bark and spire-like growth identify subalpine fr. Needles are fat and 1 inch long. Cones are purple grow upright on branches.

Lodgepole pine

The most abundant conifer, grows on the lower mountain slopes and in welldrained glacial soils throughout the valley. Needles are 2-3 inches long, clustered in bundles of 2; cones are 1-2 inches long.

Limber pine

Grow individually on open, dry valley sites. Needles grow in bundles of 5. Cones are 4-8 inches long.

Engelmann Spruce

Occurs with subalpine fr. Rough bark and abundant cones hanging down from upper branches identify Engelmann spruce. Needles are sharp, four-sided and occur singly and cones are 1.5 inches long with papery scales.

Douglas Fir

Not a true fir, inhabits dry south- to east-facing slopes. Large diameter trees have coarse, furrowed bark. Needles are fat and 1 inch long; cones have a 3-pointed bract


Close relatives of aspens, grow along rivers and creeks in the valley. Bark on mature trees is heavily furrowed. The species here hybridize freely so identifcation of individual species may be difcult.

Blue Spruce

Lines rivers and creeks in the valley. Cones have papery scales and are twice as large as those found on Engelmann spruce. Spruce needles are sharp, four-sided, and occur singly.


Grows in stands on level, moist sites and on dry slopes. Aspen bark is smooth and greenish, cream-colored. Reproduction is primarily from shoots sprouting from horizontal roots.